Neither a crusader nor curial politician, Sixtus aimed at the aggrandizement of his family and of the Papal States, subordinating his duties as the church’s spiritual head in a manner characteristic of his era. Sometime after this transition occurred, Pope Sixtus IV of the Della Rovere family erected several new structures, including a new papal chapel that was named the Sistine. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Raul Bova in the second season, and John Lynch in the third season of the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence. Pope Sixtus IV. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. Lorenzo De’ Medici had gotten on the wrong side of the Pope one too many times – he had taken a dislike to the Pope’s choice for Archbishop of Pisa, Francesco Salviato, and had also taken umbridge to the fact that Girolamo Riario, Pope Sixtus’ nephew, had been given Imola in the aim of setting up a brand new papal state. Cosimo de’ Medici of Florence and Pope Sixtus IV of Rome are examples of patrons who used “the arts as an instrument of power”. One of his first acts was to declare a renewed crusade against the Ottoman Turks in Smyrna. Although Sixtus endorsed the plot, he did not approve of assassination. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed t… Upon being elected Pope, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which had not been used since the 5th century. Pope Sixtus IV was the 212th Pope, whose 13 years long papacy was embroiled in controversies and internal wars. 2014, "Sisto IV (1414-1484)", Palazzo-Medici Riccardi. [16] Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon,[16] who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. fifteenth century, the location of the Pope’s Roman residence had moved from the Lateran Palace to the Vatican. In 1467, he was appointed Cardinal by Pope Paul II with the titular church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. [13] The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. [24]. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. In a dramatic scene, the Pope was poisoned as he spoke to members of the Houses of Borgia and Medici, and quick medical assistance from an aide was able to save his life. The Vatican has its plans for the Medici family, however, seeing as Pope Sixtus IV was one of the people behind the scenes during the Pazzi conspiracy. For hundreds of years historians have known the plot was largely engineered by Francesco de Pazzi, from a rival family of bankers, with an assist from Pope Sixtus IV, … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [14] Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.[15]. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. Maria del Popolo and Sta. Paul III (pope from 1534 to 1549) was born … Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. Cosimo de’ Medici and Pope Sixtus IV… adoring the Infant Saviour. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. Sixtus IV, original name Francesco della Rovere, (born July 21, 1414, Cella Ligure, near Savona, Republic of Genoa—died Aug. 12, 1484, Rome), pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus IV instituted for the Roman Church the feast (December 8) of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. Its contents reveal that he conspired to overthrow the Medicis’ reign and that his co-conspirators included Pope Sixtus IV, the Pope’s nephew Gerolamo Riario, Archbishop Salviati, and … Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which held that papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France. John Lynch (The Fall) has replaced Raoul Bova in the role of Pope Sixtus IV, while Rose Williams (Reign) has taken over the character of Caterina Sforza (previously played by Nicole Brugnoli). He established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital and repaired and built numerous Roman churches (including Sta. [6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. 6. Already drained by his grandfather's building projects and constantly stressed by mismanagement, wars, and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank reduced seriously during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. In 1410, for example, Baldassare Cossa borrowed 10,000fl. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. 7. In the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, he is accompanied by his Della Rovere and Riario nephews, not all of whom were made cardinals; the protonotary apostolic Pietro Riario (on his right), the future Pope Julius II/ Giuliano Della Rovere standing before him; and Girolamo Riario and Giovanni della Rovere, behind the kneeling Platina, author of the first humanist history of the popes. He was also a noted theological writer and teacher who gave lectures at universities in Siena, Pavia, Padua, Florence and Bologna. The conspirators had included Pope Sixtus IV in their plot as he had an ongoing, years-long rivalry wit… Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. Lorenzo’s father, Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, was equally at the centre of Florentine life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, like his father Cosimo de’ Medici, who was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and the first member of the Medici family to combine running the Medici Bank with leading the Republic of Florence.Lorenzo’s mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Medi… [2], As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. 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