In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. For more information follow the bold category link. Rats were the ones that spread the bubonic plague aka black death. [5] After the death of King Alfonso (1458), friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa induced him to resign his canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education. Without cats, the rat population flourished. Using his influence to provide for […] Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Yale University Press. He was the son of the Roman senator, Aran Cibò, and Teodorina de' Mari. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. ), of an old Genoese family. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. Minnich states that those who allowed the slave trade did so in the hope of gaining converts to Christianity. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. Pope Alexander VIII (22 April 1610 – 1 February 1691), born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. Pope Innocent XI (Latin: Innocentius XI; 16 May 1611 – 12 August 1689), born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death on August 12, 1689. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. On the death of Pope Innocent VIII on 25 July 1492, the three likely candidates for the Papacy were the sixty-one-year-old Borgia, seen as an independent candidate, Ascanio Sforza for the Milanese, and Giuliano della Rovere, seen as a pro-French candidate. It is also worth mentioning that Innocent VIII battled with unsuccessful insistence to promote a great crusade. That was it for cats. 13. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. Innocent died on 27 September 1700 and was succeeded by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721). Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. He is known in Budapest as the "Saviour of Hungary". Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. Cardinal Rodrigo Borja was elected unanimously on the fourth ballot as Pope Alexander VI. After Innocent XI in 1689, he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. After the death of Clement XI he was elected pope in a stormy conclave on 8 May, 1721. Pope, the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Cats are the #1 rat predators. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. Witchcraft in Europe, 400–1700: A Documentary History. It was the first papal conclave to be held in the Sistine Chapel. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. [11], Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. Savonarola chastised him[who?] Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. The secular power can without mortal sin carry out a sentence of death, provided it proceeds in imposing the penalty not from hatred but with judgment, not carelessly but with due solicitude. cf., Joyy et al., Witchcraft and Magic In Europe, p. 239 (2002). In 1650, he was made Bishop of Novara. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martín de Castañega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)". The pope is regarded as the successor of St. Peter and has supreme power of jurisdiction over the Catholic church in matters of faith and morals, as well as in church discipline and government. When Innocent VIII lay dying, his doctors decided that they would try a blood transfusion. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. 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